Mammalian System – Regbiomed http://regbiomed.com/ Thu, 30 Jun 2022 19:03:30 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://regbiomed.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/icon-150x150.png Mammalian System – Regbiomed http://regbiomed.com/ 32 32 Building artificial Hox genes allows researchers to see how cells learn their location in the body https://regbiomed.com/building-artificial-hox-genes-allows-researchers-to-see-how-cells-learn-their-location-in-the-body/ Thu, 30 Jun 2022 19:03:30 +0000 https://regbiomed.com/building-artificial-hox-genes-allows-researchers-to-see-how-cells-learn-their-location-in-the-body/ New York University researchers have created Hox genes – which plan and direct where cells go to develop tissues or organs – using new synthetic DNA technology and genomic engineering in stem cells. Their findings, published in Scienceconfirm how the clusters of Hox genes help cells learn and remember where they are in the body. […]]]>

New York University researchers have created Hox genes – which plan and direct where cells go to develop tissues or organs – using new synthetic DNA technology and genomic engineering in stem cells.

Their findings, published in Scienceconfirm how the clusters of Hox genes help cells learn and remember where they are in the body.

Hox genes as architects of the body

Almost all animals – from humans to birds to fish – have an anterior-posterior axis, or a line that runs from head to tail. During development, Hox genes act as architects, determining the plane from which cells go along the axis, as well as the parts of the body they compose. Hox genes ensure that organs and tissues grow in the right place, forming the thorax or placing the wings in the correct anatomical positions.

Whether Hox genes fail due to misregulation or mutation, cells can be lost, playing a role in certain cancers, birth defects and miscarriages.

“I don’t think we can understand development or disease without understanding Hox genes,” said Esteban Mazzoni, associate professor of biology at NYU and co-lead author of the study.

Despite their importance in development, Hox genes are difficult to study. They are tightly organized in clusters, with only Hox genes in the piece of DNA where they are and no other genes around them (what scientists call a “gene desert”). And while many parts of the genome have repeating elements, Hox clusters have no such repeats. These factors make them unique but difficult to study with conventional gene editing without affecting neighbors. Hox Genoa.

Start over with synthetic DNA

Could scientists create Hox genes to better study them, rather than relying on gene editing?

“We’re very good at reading the genome or sequencing DNA. And thanks to CRISPR, we can make small changes to the genome. But we’re still not good at writing from scratch,” Mazzoni explained. “Writing or building new pieces of the genome could help us test sufficiency — in this case, finding out what the smallest unit of the genome is needed for a cell to know where it is in the body.”

Mazzoni teamed up with Jef Boeke, director of the Institute of System Genetics at NYU Grossman School of Medicine, known for his work synthesizing a synthetic yeast genome. Boeke’s lab was looking to translate this technology to mammalian cells.

Graduate student Sudarshan Pinglay of Boeke’s lab made long strands of synthetic DNA by copying DNA from the Hox rat genes. The researchers then delivered the DNA to a specific location in mouse pluripotent stem cells. Using the different species allowed the researchers to distinguish between synthetic rat DNA and natural mouse cells.

“Dr. Richard Feynman said, ‘What I can’t create, I don’t understand.’ We are now one giant step closer to understanding Hoxsaid Boeke, who is also a professor of biochemistry and molecular pharmacology at NYU Grossman and co-lead author of the study.

Studying Hox groups

With the artificial Hox DNA in mouse stem cells, researchers could now explore how Hox genes help cells learn and remember where they are. In mammals, Hox clusters are surrounded by regulatory regions that control Hox genes are activated. It was unclear whether the cluster alone or the cluster plus other elements was necessary for cells to learn and remember where they are.

The researchers found that these gene-dense clusters alone contain all the information cells need to decode and remember a position signal. This suggests that the compact nature of Hox clusters is what helps cells learn their location, confirming a long-held hypothesis about Hox genes that were previously difficult to test.

The creation of synthetic and artificial DNA Hox genes paves the way for future research on animal development and human disease.

“Different species have different structures and shapes, many of which depend on how Hox clusters are cast. For example, a snake is a long thorax with no limbs, while a skate has no thorax and only limbs. A better understanding of Hox clusters can help us understand how these systems are adapted and modified to create different animals,” Mazzoni said.

“More broadly, this synthetic DNA technology, for which we have built a kind of factory, will be useful for studying genomically complicated diseases and we now have a method to produce much more precise models for them,” Boeke said. .

This work was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health (grants RM1HG009491, R01AG075272, R01NS100897, R01GM127538, and F32CA239394), New York State Stem Cell Science (C322560GG), and Melanoma Research Foundation (687306).

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What is Connectome? https://regbiomed.com/what-is-connectome/ Fri, 24 Jun 2022 21:43:00 +0000 https://regbiomed.com/what-is-connectome/ IntroductionWhat is the connectome?The Human Connectome ProjectThe historical context of the HCPRecent advances in connectomicsReferencesFurther reading The connectome is a structural map of the brain. Our current understanding of this complex and highly dynamic neural network is the result of a large transatlantic collaborative endeavor known as the Human Connectome Project (HCP), first initiated in […]]]>

Introduction
What is the connectome?
The Human Connectome Project
The historical context of the HCP
Recent advances in connectomics
References
Further reading


The connectome is a structural map of the brain. Our current understanding of this complex and highly dynamic neural network is the result of a large transatlantic collaborative endeavor known as the Human Connectome Project (HCP), first initiated in 2010. Since then, our knowledge of the structure of the brain and how it functions has increased, although there is still a long way to go towards mapping a nanoscale connectome of an entire human brain.

Image Credit: VectorMine/Shutterstock

Although mapping the connectome at the nanoscale level of resolution is hotly contested by some neuroscientists, understanding the brain at this level of detail could prove fruitful for advances in several fields, including artificial intelligence. Harnessing this new knowledge could also prove crucial for better understanding brain diseases such as schizophrenia, autism, multiple sclerosis, dyslexia, Alzheimer’s disease and other disorders.

What is the connectome?

The human brain is a physical object, a complex and dynamic biological network. The connectome provides comprehensive maps of structural brain connectivity to better understand the structural-functional relationship of the brain. Scientists still have a long way to go until a nanoscale connectome of the entire human brain can be achieved. The brain has 1015 connections and around 100 billion neurons, roughly as many stars as there are in the Milky Way (DeWeerdt, 2019).

Using our current imaging technology, such a feat would take thousands of years with dozens of microscopes running all day and night. It was only very recently that the whole effort began, although great progress has been made since then and much progress is expected in the years to come.

Image Credit: Image Source Trading Ltd/ShutterstockImage Credit: Image Source Trading Ltd/Shutterstock

The Human Connectome Project

Human Connectome Project (HCP) was launched in 2010 with the goal of accelerating advances in human neuroimaging and mapping structural brain connectivity. The project was received with great enthusiasm. It was the first time ever that scientists had attempted to map the complex wiring of the brain.

The objective of the HCP was to provide:[if–>

  1. An unparalleled collection of neural data
  2. An interface to graphically browse the data
  3. A way to know the brain better than ever

The HCP was funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), who awarded a $30 million, 5-year grant to a collaborative group combing complementary strengths and comprising three centers: Washing University (WU), the University of Minnesota (UMinn), and the University of Oxford (OX). The group thus became known as the WU-Minn-OX consortium.

Read Next: Studying the Human Brain

The historical backdrop to the HCP

The foundations for the HCP lay in advances in neuroscience that occurred in the late twentieth century (Stine Elam et al., 2021).

  1. The emergence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities that have enabled the non-invasive imaging of brain structure and function and the study of connectivity using structural MRI and techniques complementary to:
  • Resting-state functional MRI (rfMRI)
  • Functional task-evoked MRI (tfMRI)
  • diffusion imaging (dMRI)
  1. A reader to understand the “wiring diagram” of the nervous system

The roots of this project can be traced back to the 1909 work of Santiago F. Ramón y Cajal.

In addition to these advances, another major milestone was the charting of synaptic connections in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in 1986 with advances in electron microscopy by a team led by Sydney Brenner at the University of Cambridge.

Image Credit: solarseven/ShutterstockImage Credit: solarseven/Shutterstock

Recent advances in connectomics

After the synaptic mapping of Caenorhabditis elegans in the 1980s, scientists completed the task of elucidating connectome for a second species, Ciona intestinalis ––the larvae of a marine organism in 2016. Since then, the mapping of a segment of the mouse brain, the mouse-brain cubic-millimeter project, has been underway. It is no mean feat for a cubic millimeter of mouse brain comprises 100,000 neurons and the one billion connections, or synapses.

At the Allen Institute for Brain Science, based in Seattle, five transmission electron microscopes ran non-stop for five whole months. Between them, they collected over 100 million images of 25,000 slices of mouse visual cortex, each of these only 40 nanometres thick (DeWeerdt, 2019). These images were then compiled into a single 3D volume using special software developed at the institute – a project that took around three months.

The size of the dataset amounted to a whopping 2 petabytes (2 million gigabytes). To put this into perspective, it serves as a reminder that over 30 years of satellite images collected of the Earth during the Landsat missions comprised just 1.3 petabytes (DeWeerdt, 2019).

Scientists are now working on improving microscopical resolution and efficiency with a view to mapping the nanoscale connectome of the mammalian brain.

But the progress doesn’t stop there. The connectome is only able to provide details on the location of synapses, but not on their molecular composition. The next step would be synaptom mapping, which could then be used in conjunction with the knowledge gained about the connectome.

References

  • DeWeerdt, S. 2019. How to map the brain. Nature. Doi: 10.1038/d41586-019-02208-0.
  • Stine Elam, J., et al. 2021. The Connectome Human Project: A Retrospective. NeuroImage. Doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118543.
  • University of Southern California (USC) Mark and Mary Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute. nd Human Connectome Project. Online: http://www.humanconnectomeproject.org.

Further reading

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Eukaryotic Expression Systems Market Share, Scope, Opportunities, Covid-19 Impact, Risks and Challenges, Manufacturers, Forecast to 2028 https://regbiomed.com/eukaryotic-expression-systems-market-share-scope-opportunities-covid-19-impact-risks-and-challenges-manufacturers-forecast-to-2028/ Thu, 23 Jun 2022 15:04:52 +0000 https://regbiomed.com/eukaryotic-expression-systems-market-share-scope-opportunities-covid-19-impact-risks-and-challenges-manufacturers-forecast-to-2028/ A credible Eukaryotic Expression Systems Market report has been prepared with the detailed market analysis performed by a team of industry experts, skillful analysts, dynamic forecasters and knowledgeable researchers. This report is the best source for gaining unparalleled information and knowledge of the best market opportunities in the relevant markets. The full-scale report market research […]]]>

A credible Eukaryotic Expression Systems Market report has been prepared with the detailed market analysis performed by a team of industry experts, skillful analysts, dynamic forecasters and knowledgeable researchers. This report is the best source for gaining unparalleled information and knowledge of the best market opportunities in the relevant markets. The full-scale report market research assesses the market status, market share, growth rate, future trends, market drivers, opportunities and challenges, risks and barriers to entry, sales channels and distributors. Moreover, companies can derive great benefits from this information to make a decision on their production and marketing strategies.

The report explains various industry and market related segments with comprehensive research and analysis. These involve the industry outlook with respect to Critical Success Factors (CSFs), industry dynamics which majorly covers drivers and restraints, market segmentation, and supply chain analysis. value, key opportunities, application and technology outlook, regional or geographic information, country level analysis. The list can be expanded with key company profiles, competitive landscape, and company market share analysis. All data, figures and information are backed up by genuine analytical tools which include SWOT analysis and Porter’s five forces analysis. So, achieve the maximum level of business growth with this comprehensive market research report.

The eukaryotic expression systems market is expected to experience market growth during the forecast period from 2020 to 2027. Data Bridge Market Research analyzes the market to account for growth at a CAGR of 10.90% during the forecast period mentioned above. The increasing development of the pharmaceutical industry and the growth of proteomics and biologics has had a direct impact on the growth of the eukaryotic expression systems market.

Get Sample Report + All Related Charts & Graphs (With COVID 19 Analysis) @https://www.databridgemarketresearch.com/request-a-sample/?dbmr=global-eukaryotic-expression-systems-market

Competitive Landscape and Eukaryotic Expression Systems Market Share Analysis

Eukaryotic Expression Systems Market competitive landscape provides details by competitor. Details included are company overview, company financials, revenue generated, market potential, research and development investment, new market initiatives, global presence, locations and production facilities, production capacities, company strengths and weaknesses, product launch, product breadth and breadth, application dominance. The data points provided above are only related to the companies’ focus on the eukaryotic expression systems market.

major player

Key players covered in the Eukaryotic Expression Systems Market report are Thermo Fisher Scientific, Life Technologies Corporation, Jena Biosciences, New England Biolabs, Takara Bio Inc., Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., Promega Corporation, Agilent Technologies , Inc., Merck KGaA, Sigma Aldrich Co. and QIAGEN among other domestic and global players. Market share data is available separately for Global, North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific (APAC), Middle East and Africa (MEA) and South America . DBMR analysts understand competitive strengths and provide competitive analysis for each competitor separately.

The growing volume of patients suffering from complex diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer is expected to have a significant impact on the eukaryotic expression systems market during the forecast period from 2020 to 2027. Another important reason for the Increased use of eukaryotic expression systems has been driven by the increasing intensity of research, the growth of the biologics market, and the increase in research and development for therapeutics. On the other hand, the increasing technological advancements for highly developed eukaryotic expression systems will further boost various new opportunities that will lead to the growth of the eukaryotic expression systems market during the forecast period mentioned above.

The high cost associated with these systems will hamper the growth of the eukaryotic expression systems market during the forecast period mentioned above.

This Eukaryotic Expression Systems Market report provides details about recent new developments, trade regulations, import and export analysis, production analysis, value chain optimization, market share, the impact of national and localized market players, analyzes opportunities in terms of emerging revenue pockets, market changes regulations, strategic market growth analysis, market size, category market growth, niches and dominance of applications, product approvals, product launches, geographic expansions, technological innovations in the market. For more insights on the Eukaryotic Expression Systems Market, contact Data Bridge Market Research for an Analyst Brief, our team will help you make an informed market decision to achieve market growth.

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Global eukaryotic expression systems market scope and market size

The eukaryotic expression systems market is segmented on the basis of type, host type and application. The growth among these segments will help you analyze low growth segments within the industries and provide users with valuable market insight and market insights to help them make strategic decisions for identification of major market applications.

  • Based on type, the eukaryotic expression systems market is segmented into reagents, expression vectors, and competent cells.
  • On the basis of host type, the eukaryotic expression systems market is segmented into s.cerevisiae, filamentous fungi, leishamania, and baculovirus infected cells.
  • The eukaryotic expression system market has also been segmented on the basis of application into bacterial expression system, yeast expression system, insect expression system and mammalian expression system .

Country Level Analysis of the Eukaryotic Expression Systems Market

The Eukaryotic Expression Systems market is analyzed and market size insights and trends are provided by country, type, host type and application as listed above.

The countries covered in the Eukaryotic Expression Systems market report are USA, Canada & Mexico North America, Germany, France, UK, Netherlands, Switzerland , Belgium, Russia, Italy, Spain, Turkey, Rest of Europe in Europe, China, Japan, India, South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines , Rest of Asia Pacific (APAC) in Asia Pacific (APAC), Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, South Africa, Egypt, Israel, Rest of Middle East and Africa (MEA) in Middle East and Africa (MEA) frame, Brazil, Argentina, and the rest of South America in the South America frame.

North America dominates the eukaryotic expression systems market, while Asia-Pacific is expected to witness the highest growth rate during the forecast period 2020 to 2027 due to the huge potential available as well as increased research and development spending in this particular region.

The country section of the Eukaryotic Expression Systems market report also provides individual market impacting factors and regulatory changes in the country market that impact current and future market trends. Data points such as consumption volumes, production sites and volumes, import and export analysis, price trend analysis, raw material cost, value chain analysis Downstream and Upstream are some of the major indicators used to forecast the market scenario for each country. In addition, the presence and availability of global brands and the challenges they face due to significant or rare competition from local and national brands, the impact of domestic tariffs and trade routes are considered while providing a forecast analysis of national data.

Growth of health infrastructure Installed base and penetration of new technologies

The Eukaryotic Expression Systems market also provides you detailed market analysis for each country, healthcare expenditure growth for capital goods, installed base of different product types for Eukaryotic Expression Systems market , the impact of technology using lifeline curves and changes in healthcare regulatory scenarios and their impact on the eukaryotic expression systems market. Data is available for the historical period from 2010 to 2018.

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How Food Allergies Happen | Borneo Online Newsletter https://regbiomed.com/how-food-allergies-happen-borneo-online-newsletter/ Sun, 19 Jun 2022 20:06:25 +0000 https://regbiomed.com/how-food-allergies-happen-borneo-online-newsletter/ Dr Jonathan Chong ANN/THE STAR – Food allergies are defined as adverse reactions to certain types of food due to underlying mechanisms mediated by the immune system. Such allergies can develop at any age, although most tend to appear during childhood. Although any food can theoretically trigger an allergic reaction, a few select foods are […]]]>

Dr Jonathan Chong

ANN/THE STAR – Food allergies are defined as adverse reactions to certain types of food due to underlying mechanisms mediated by the immune system.

Such allergies can develop at any age, although most tend to appear during childhood.

Although any food can theoretically trigger an allergic reaction, a few select foods are often responsible for most of these reactions, with the most common food groups being seafood and nuts.

However, there are a number of uncommon allergies that have been increasingly recognized in recent years, including red meat allergy syndrome and pancake syndrome.

Red meat allergy, also known as “mammalian meat allergy” or “alpha-gal syndrome”, can develop after a bite from the lone tick commonly found in the southeastern United States. United (United States).

The tick bite can transmit a type of sugar molecule called alpha-gal, which can cause some people’s immune systems to produce allergic reactions to certain meats like beef and lamb, as well as other products. mammals like milk and gelatin.

Reactions can range from mild to severe and there is currently no known cure.

Pancake syndrome, also known as oral mite anaphylaxis, can occur after ingesting certain wheat or corn products contaminated with specific types of mites.

Broadly speaking, food allergies can be classified into two categories: IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated immunoglobulin E (IgE), although some reactions may exhibit features of both mechanisms.

In IgE-mediated reactions, the onset of symptoms is quite short, usually developing within 10 minutes to four hours of ingesting the food allergen.

These symptoms can involve several systems in the body, including:

– Skin, eg hives, swelling, itching and flushing.

– Respiratory system, eg shortness of breath, wheezing.

– Circulatory system, eg dizziness, low blood pressure, fainting.

– Digestive system, eg nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal cramps.

However, symptoms of non-IgE-mediated reactions tend to appear later. They are also generally located in the digestive system and/or the skin.

Mild allergic reactions, such as localized rashes, can be self-medicated with antihistamines and may not require medical attention.

Severe cases, also known as anaphylaxis, can involve multiple systems, causing rashes, swelling of the eyes and throat, chest tightness, dizziness, and palpitations.

They are potentially fatal, especially if left untreated or if treatment is delayed. In such cases, self-treatment with medications such as antihistamines is of limited benefit at best, as they do not relieve the airway obstruction.

Anaphylaxis is also often accompanied by a condition known as anaphylactic shock, where tissues and cells in the body do not have enough oxygen to function. If someone is in shock, it is a medical emergency and it is essential that they are taken to hospital as soon as possible, so that timely treatment and monitoring can
to be initiated.

If you suspect a moderate or severe allergic reaction, you are advised to seek immediate medical attention.

Symptoms of an allergic reaction may initially seem quite mild, but they can quickly worsen over a very short period of time, and it can be difficult to predict when an allergic reaction might get worse.

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Global Protein Therapeutics Market Research Report 2022: Focus on Insulin; fusion protein; Erythropoietin; interferon; Human Growth Hormone; Follicle Stimulating Hormone – ResearchAndMarkets.com https://regbiomed.com/global-protein-therapeutics-market-research-report-2022-focus-on-insulin-fusion-protein-erythropoietin-interferon-human-growth-hormone-follicle-stimulating-hormone-researchandmarkets-com/ Fri, 17 Jun 2022 12:06:00 +0000 https://regbiomed.com/global-protein-therapeutics-market-research-report-2022-focus-on-insulin-fusion-protein-erythropoietin-interferon-human-growth-hormone-follicle-stimulating-hormone-researchandmarkets-com/ DUBLIN–(BUSINESS WIRE)–The report “Global Protein Therapeutics Market Report 2022: By Product, By Application, By Function” has been added to from ResearchAndMarkets.com offer. The global therapeutic protein market is expected to grow from $100.06 billion in 2021 to $112.17 billion in 2022 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.1%. The market is expected to […]]]>

DUBLIN–(BUSINESS WIRE)–The report “Global Protein Therapeutics Market Report 2022: By Product, By Application, By Function” has been added to from ResearchAndMarkets.com offer.

The global therapeutic protein market is expected to grow from $100.06 billion in 2021 to $112.17 billion in 2022 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 12.1%. The market is expected to reach $177.30 billion in 2026 with a CAGR of 12.1%.

The therapeutic proteins market consists of the sale of therapeutic proteins. Therapeutic proteins provide important therapies for diseases such as diabetes, cancer, infectious diseases, hemophilia and anemia.

The major product types in Therapeutic Proteins are Insulin, Fusion Protein, Erythropoietin, Interferon, Human Growth Hormone, and Follicle Stimulating Hormone. Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells in pancreatic cells which serves as the primary anabolic hormone of the individual. It affects the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins by stimulating the uptake of glucose from the blood into fat, liver and skeletal muscle cells.

The different functions include enzymatic and regulatory activity, special targeting activity, vaccines, protein diagnostics and are used in various applications such as metabolic disorders, immunological disorders, hematological disorders, cancer, disorders hormonal, genetic disorders, etc.

Advanced technologies for protein drug development are driving the protein therapeutics market. Therapeutic proteins cannot be synthesized chemically, they must be produced by genetic engineering and recombinant DNA technology in living cells or organisms.

Protein engineering platform technologies such as glycoengineering, pegylation, Fc fusion, albumin fusion, albumin-drug conjugation help to increase production yield, product purity, Circulating half-life, targeting and functionality of therapeutic protein drugs. Belimumab, ipilimumab, taliglucerase alfa, albiglutide, recombinant human coagulation factor IX are therapeutic protein drugs developed using FDA-approved protein engineering technologies over the past five years.

The rise of biosimilar drugs in the global market is slowing down the growth of the therapeutic protein market. The expiration of patents for therapeutic proteins such as monoclonal antibodies paves the way for the entry of biosimilars. In the EU, AbbVie highlighted the patent expiration of Humira (adalimumab) in 2018, five Humira biosimilars from Mylan, Amgen, Sandoz, Samsung Bioepis received drug approvals from the European Commission to enter on the EU market. These cost-effective treatments similar to the original biologics decrease revenues and sales of therapeutic proteins.

Monoclonal antibody drug approvals are on the rise in the protein therapeutics segment. Chronic diseases such as cancer, immunological disorders are well treated with monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies are a dominant and well-established class of products in the protein therapeutic segment with more safety and immunogenicity than antibodies.

Cell-based expression systems such as the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) mammalian cell expression system with the latest technologies have increased the productivity of monoclonal antibodies by overcoming the problems associated with earlier antibody drugs. Over the past five years, the FDA has approved 213 drugs, 44 of which are monoclonal antibodies. For example, twelve monoclonal antibodies have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of cancer and immunological disorders.

In the United States, manufacturers of therapeutic protein drugs file a therapeutic biologics application (BLA) with the FDA for product approval. The BLA-approved drug must be proven to be safe, pure, and potent. FDA Consolidated Review of Most Therapeutic Proteins in the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). In the European Union, biological products are regulated by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) for marketing authorization.

In July 2021, Eli Lilly and Company, a US-based pharmaceutical company, acquired Protomer Technologies Inc. for $1 billion. Lilly is excited to add breakthrough protomer technology to its diabetes pipeline with this acquisition, as the company’s glucose-sensing insulin program, which is based on its proprietary sensor molecular engineering platform of proteins (MEPS), has great potential.

The major players in the therapeutic proteins market are

  • Abbott Laboratories

  • Amgen Inc.

  • Baxter International Inc.

  • Eli Lilly and company

  • F.Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.

  • Pfizer Inc.

  • Johnson & Johnson

  • Merck & Co Inc.

  • Novo Nordisk A/S

  • Sanofi

  • Biogene Inc.

  • Genentech inc.

  • Genex Biotechnology

  • Genetech

  • Merck Serono S.A.

  • Astra Zeneca

  • Boehringer Ingelheim

  • Pharmaceutical Chugai

  • Diasome Pharmaceuticals

  • GeneScience Pharmaceuticals

  • Hualan Biological Engineering

  • CSL Behring

  • Kyowa Hakko Kirin

  • Oramed Pharmaceuticals

  • Sandoz International

  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries

  • AbbVie

  • Bristol Myers Squibb Co.

  • Novartis

  • ProBiogen SA

Main topics covered:

1. Summary

2. Characteristics of Therapeutic Proteins Market

3. Protein Therapeutics Market Trends and Strategies

4. Impact of COVID-19 on Therapeutic Proteins

5. Protein Therapeutics Market Size and Growth

5.1. Global Historical Protein Therapeutics Market, 2016-2021, USD Billion

5.1.1. Market Drivers

5.1.2. Market Constraints

5.2. Global Protein Therapeutics Market Forecast, 2021-2026F, 2031F, Billion USD

5.2.1. Market Drivers

5.2.2. Market Constraints

6. Protein Therapeutics Market Segmentation

6.1. Global Therapeutic Proteins Market, Segmentation by Product Type, History and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, Billion USD

  • Insulin

  • Fusion Protein

  • Erythropoietin

  • Interferon

  • human growth hormone

  • follicle stimulating hormone

6.2. Global Protein Therapeutics Market, Segmentation by Application, History and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, Billion USD

  • Metabolic disorders

  • Immunological disorders

  • Hematological disorders

  • Cancer

  • Hormonal disorders

  • Genetic Disorders

  • Others

6.3. Global Protein Therapeutics Market, Segmentation by Function, History and Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, Billion USD

  • Enzymatic and regulatory activity

  • Special targeting activity

  • Vaccines

  • Protein diagnostics

7. Regional and Country Analysis of Protein Therapeutics Market

7.1. Global Protein Therapeutics Market, Split by Region, Historical & Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, Billion USD

7.2. Global Protein Therapeutics Market, Split by Country, Historical & Forecast, 2016-2021, 2021-2026F, 2031F, USD Billion

For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/ktb394

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An exercise-inducible metabolite that suppresses diet and obesity https://regbiomed.com/an-exercise-inducible-metabolite-that-suppresses-diet-and-obesity/ Wed, 15 Jun 2022 16:54:42 +0000 https://regbiomed.com/an-exercise-inducible-metabolite-that-suppresses-diet-and-obesity/ Eriksson, KF & Lindgärde, F. Prevention of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus through diet and exercise. Diabetology 34891–898 (1991). CAS Google Scholar Article Rejeski, WJ et al. Lifestyle change and mobility in obese adults with type 2 diabetes. N.Engl. J.Med. 3661209-1217 (2012). CAS Google Scholar Article Stampfer, MJ, Hu, FB, Manson, JE, Rimm, EB, and […]]]>
  • Eriksson, KF & Lindgärde, F. Prevention of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus through diet and exercise. Diabetology 34891–898 (1991).

    CAS Google Scholar Article

  • Rejeski, WJ et al. Lifestyle change and mobility in obese adults with type 2 diabetes. N.Engl. J.Med. 3661209-1217 (2012).

    CAS Google Scholar Article

  • Stampfer, MJ, Hu, FB, Manson, JE, Rimm, EB, and Willett, WC Primary prevention of coronary heart disease in women through diet and lifestyle. N.Engl. J.Med. 34316–22 (2000).

    CAS Google Scholar Article

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    A new way to generate insulin-producing cells https://regbiomed.com/a-new-way-to-generate-insulin-producing-cells/ Mon, 13 Jun 2022 18:39:36 +0000 https://regbiomed.com/a-new-way-to-generate-insulin-producing-cells/ Researchers from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden show how a molecule they have identified stimulates the formation of new insulin-producing cells in zebrafish and mammalian tissues, through a newly described mechanism for regulating protein synthesis. The results are published in Nature Chemical Biology. “Our results point to a potential new target for the treatment of diabetes, […]]]>

    Researchers from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden show how a molecule they have identified stimulates the formation of new insulin-producing cells in zebrafish and mammalian tissues, through a newly described mechanism for regulating protein synthesis. The results are published in Nature Chemical Biology.

    “Our results point to a potential new target for the treatment of diabetes, in that we demonstrate a possible way to stimulate the formation of new insulin-producing cells,” says the study’s final author, lead researcher Olov Andersson. at the Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology of Karolinska Institutet.

    Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are characterized by high blood sugar levels, the result of low levels of endogenous insulin, the hormone necessary for the absorption of glucose from the blood, or a physiological inability to use secreted insulin – or both.

    Insulin injections and hypoglycemic drugs can control the disease, but not cure it.

    Regeneration of pancreatic β cells

    “An alternative could be a treatment that regulates blood sugar by increasing the number of pancreatic insulin-producing β cells, so we are studying the possible regeneration of these cells,” explains the first author of the study, Christos Karampelias, a former doctoral student at the Department. of Cellular and Molecular Biology at the Karolinska Institutet.

    The Karolinska Institutet team previously identified a small molecule capable of stimulating the regeneration of insulin-producing β cells. They did this by analyzing a large amount of substances in a zebrafish model.

    In this current study, they examined the molecular mechanism of this stimulation.

    By analyzing a large number of molecular interactions in yeast cells, the researchers show that their molecule binds to a protein called MNK2. Subsequent studies in zebrafish and cell cultures indicate that the molecule works by regulating mRNA translation and stimulating protein synthesis, without which the formation of new β cells cannot be increased. Zebrafish given the molecule also showed lower blood glucose levels than controls.

    The study also shows that the molecule can induce the formation of new pancreatic β cells in pigs and stimulate the expression of insulin in human organoids (organ-like cell formations).

    Human tissue studies

    “We will now study the effect of this molecule and similar molecules in human tissues and analyze the molecule’s target protein, MNK2, in the tissues of healthy donors and donors with diabetes,” explains Dr Andersson.

    The molecule studied was found through studies in zebrafish, providing a valuable model for testing a large number of potential diabetes drug candidates. Since the fish embryo is transparent, its development is easy to follow under a microscope. Zebrafish larvae also have only one cluster of β cells, a so-called islet of Langerhans, which facilitates studies on the formation of new β cells after population decline in a way that mimics the onset of type 1 diabetes.

    The study was funded by the European Research Council, the Swedish Research Council, the Ragnar Söderberg Foundation, the Novo Nordisk Foundation, the Strategic Research Program in Diabetes (SRP Diabetes) and the Strategic Research Area in stem cell research and regenerative medicine (StratRegen) at the Karolinska Institutet.

    Source of the story:

    Material provided by Karolinska Institute. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

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    Disposable Upstream Bioprocessing Technology/Equipment Market Research Report 2022 https://regbiomed.com/disposable-upstream-bioprocessing-technology-equipment-market-research-report-2022/ Wed, 08 Jun 2022 11:45:00 +0000 https://regbiomed.com/disposable-upstream-bioprocessing-technology-equipment-market-research-report-2022/ DUBLIN, June 8, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — The report “Upstream Single-use Bioprocessing Technology/Equipment by Product Type, Scale of Operation and Key Geography: Industry Trends and Global Forecast, 2022-2035” has been added to from ResearchAndMarkets.com offer. Research and Markets Logo The “Single-use Upstream Bioprocessing Technology/Equipment Market” report presents an in-depth study of the current landscape and probable […]]]>

    DUBLIN, June 8, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — The report “Upstream Single-use Bioprocessing Technology/Equipment by Product Type, Scale of Operation and Key Geography: Industry Trends and Global Forecast, 2022-2035” has been added to from ResearchAndMarkets.com offer.

    Research and Markets Logo

    The “Single-use Upstream Bioprocessing Technology/Equipment Market” report presents an in-depth study of the current landscape and probable future potential for developers of Single-use upstream bioprocessing technologies and equipment, over the next 15 years. . The study also features an in-depth analysis, highlighting the capabilities of various industry players engaged in this field.

    One of the main objectives of the report was to understand the key growth drivers and estimate the future size of the Single-Use Upstream Bioprocessing Technologies/Equipment market. Based on several parameters, such as the overall upstream bioprocessing equipment market and the share of single-use technology, we have provided an informed estimate of the market development for the period 2022-2035.

    Over time, biologics have grown in popularity due to their therapeutic efficacy, favorable safety profiles, and ability to treat a wide variety of disease indications that are otherwise difficult to treat. The success of these interventions has prompted stakeholders to modernize the traditional technology for manufacturing biologics. The demand for increased productivity and flexibility, greater profitability and faster time to market are further pushing the replacement of traditional stainless steel equipment with single-use technologies.

    These technologies have been well accepted in a relatively short time and have become an important tool in the development of various biotechnological processes. Additionally, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has prompted the biopharmaceutical industry to shift to single-use technology. These technologies not only reduce the footprint, but also eliminate development-stage cleanup costs.

    Additionally, single-use technologies have the potential to address a number of challenges associated with traditional biotreatment systems and provide various additional benefits, such as reduced water and energy consumption (by approximately 45 %), a lower initial investment cost (by 40%). , reduction in the processing time of biological products (by 33%), reduction in the risk of cross-contamination (by 8%) and increase in the potential for savings (by 30 to 40%).

    In addition to other elements, the study includes:

    • A detailed assessment of the overall Single-Use Bioreactors Market landscape based on a number of relevant parameters, such as scale of operation (laboratory, clinical, and commercial), type of cell culture system (2D culture and culture 3D), cell type culture (mammal, insect, microbial, viral, plant and others), molecule type (vaccine, monoclonal antibody, recombinant protein, stem cell, cell therapy, gene therapy and others), key characteristics (screen touch, remote monitoring, build-in system control sensors, electronic log recording, alarm system), application area (stem cell research, cancer research, regenerative medicine, drug discovery and others) and end users (pharma/biopharma, contract manufacturing organization, contract research organization and academic institutes) . Additionally, it presents details of companies developing single-use bioreactors, highlighting their year of establishment, company size and geographical presence.

    • A detailed assessment of the overall Disposable Mixers Market landscape based on a number of relevant parameters, such as scale of operation (laboratory, clinical, and commercial), type of mixing system (liquid/liquid, solid /liquid and powder/liquid), molecule type (vaccines, biologics, biosimilars and monoclonal antibody), key features (visual display/touch screen, ease of use/scalability, integrated system control sensors and process automation) and field of application (preparation of media, formulation, preparation of buffer, viral inactivation and others). Additionally, it presents details of companies developing single-use bioreactors, highlighting their year of establishment, company size and geographical presence.

    • A detailed assessment of the overall single-use sensor market landscape based on several relevant parameters, such as sensor type (conductivity, flow, pH, pressure, and temperature), bioprocessing type, measurement range, temperature operating mode, sterilization technique, material used) and area of ​​application. Additionally, the chapter presents details of the companies involved in the development of single-use sensors, including information on their year of establishment, company size, and geographic presence.

    • An overview of the overall market landscape for other single-use technologies, such as filters, sampling systems, and connectors.

    • A detailed analysis of the competitiveness of single-use bioreactors, single-use mixers and single-use sensors, taking into account several relevant parameters. For single-use bioreactors, parameters considered include product applicability (cell culture type, molecule type and application area) and product strength (cell culture system type, scale of operation and key characteristics). For single-use mixers, the parameters considered include product applicability (type of mixing system, type of molecule and area of ​​application) and product strength (scale of operation). For single-use sensors, the parameters taken into account are product specificity (minimum operating temperature, maximum operating temperature, type of calibration and type of sterilization technique) and product strength (area of ​​application and type of biotreatment).

    • Tabulated profiles of major players providing single-use upstream bioprocessing technologies, headquartered at North America, Europe and Asia Pacific. Each profile includes a company overview, financial performance information (if available), service portfolio, product portfolio, recent developments, and insightful future prospects.

    • An in-depth analysis of the various patents that have been filed/granted for single-use upstream bioprocess technology, up to December 2021, highlighting key trends associated with these patents, by type of patents, year of publication, year of application, issuing authorities involved, type of organizations, emerging area of ​​interest, age of patent, CPC symbols, top patent assignees (in terms of number of patents granted/filed), patent characteristics and geography. It also includes detailed patent benchmarking and insightful valuation analysis.

    • A detailed analysis of the brand positioning of major industry players (including single-use bioreactor developers, single-use mixer developers and single-use sensor developers), highlighting current perceptions regarding their proprietary products taking into consideration several relevant aspects, such as the experience of the manufacturer, the number of products offered, the diversity of products and the number of patents issued.

    • An insightful analysis of the time and cost saving potential of single-use upstream bioprocessing technology.

    • An informed estimate of the current and future supply and demand scenario for single-use upstream bioprocessing technologies, for the period 2022-2035.

    For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/9w55cv

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    Unraveling the History of Polar Bears and Brown Bears • Earth.com https://regbiomed.com/unraveling-the-history-of-polar-bears-and-brown-bears-earth-com/ Mon, 06 Jun 2022 19:43:19 +0000 https://regbiomed.com/unraveling-the-history-of-polar-bears-and-brown-bears-earth-com/ A new study led by the University at Buffalo has explored the intertwined evolutionary history of polar bears and brown bears. Experts estimate that polar and brown bears started becoming separate species 1.3 to 1.6 million years ago, but they continued to mate for some time. So, rather than simple divisive events, the histories of […]]]>

    A new study led by the University at Buffalo has explored the intertwined evolutionary history of polar bears and brown bears. Experts estimate that polar and brown bears started becoming separate species 1.3 to 1.6 million years ago, but they continued to mate for some time. So, rather than simple divisive events, the histories of polar and brown bear species hide convoluted stories of divergence and interbreeding, similar to those that complicate the story of human evolution.

    “The formation and maintenance of species can be a messy process,” said the study’s lead author, Professor Charlotte Lindqvist. “What happened with polar bears and brown bears is a good analog to what we learn about human evolution: that the division of species can be incomplete.”

    “As more and more ancient genomes have been recovered from ancient human populations, including Neanderthals and Denisovans, we find that there was ongoing multidirectional genetic mixing as different groups of archaic humans were mating with ancestors of modern humans. Polar bears and brown bears are another system where you see this happening.

    By analyzing the genomes of 64 modern polar and brown bears, as well as that of a polar bear that lived 115,000 to 130,000 years ago in the Norwegian archipelago of Svalbard – its DNA was extracted from a tooth attached to a subfossil jaw – Prof Lindqvist and his colleagues discovered a complicated and intertwined evolutionary history in brown and polar bears, with the main direction of gene flow from polar bears to brown bears.

    Additionally, after becoming a separate species, polar bears suffered a dramatic population decline and prolonged genetic bottleneck, leaving them with far less genetic diversity than brown bears.

    The discovery that Arctic-adapted polar bears continued to capture genetic material from brown bears long after their species diverged could be of great interest to scientists studying the impact of climate change on endangered species. . Since global warming and subsequent decline in Arctic sea ice could cause polar and brown bears to meet more frequently in places where their ranges overlap, a better understanding of their tangled evolutionary histories could help researchers scientists to predict how climate change could affect these species in the near future. coming.

    “Population genomics is an increasingly powerful toolkit for studying the evolution of plants and animals and the effects of human activity and climate change on endangered species,” the co concluded. –study author Luis Herrera-Estrella of Texas Tech University. “Bears provide no more simple speciation stories than human evolution. This new genomic research suggests that groups of mammalian species may hide complicated evolutionary histories.

    The study is published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

    By Andrei Ionescu, Terre.com Personal editor

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    Violence, authoritarian patterns and neurobiology https://regbiomed.com/violence-authoritarian-patterns-and-neurobiology/ Sat, 04 Jun 2022 16:15:16 +0000 https://regbiomed.com/violence-authoritarian-patterns-and-neurobiology/ An authoritarian movement is happening in our country and taking firm root despite our attempts to ignore the evidence. Its progress portends increasingly dangerous times as the nation shifts from its democratic base to an autocratic bent. Pertinent questions arise: how could violence potentially manifest itself? Are there specific elements in these movements that could […]]]>

    An authoritarian movement is happening in our country and taking firm root despite our attempts to ignore the evidence. Its progress portends increasingly dangerous times as the nation shifts from its democratic base to an autocratic bent. Pertinent questions arise: how could violence potentially manifest itself? Are there specific elements in these movements that could fuel the potential for violence? To ponder such questions, we could examine the intriguing combination of historical patterns and our neurobiological infrastructure.

    Historical models

    It is generally common knowledge that authoritarian movements follow similar patterns and share identifiable characteristics. Timothy Snyder, a Yale professor and expert on authoritarianism, says authoritarian movements in history inform us and give us the opportunity to make meaningful decisions. “For example, a pattern we can observe in interwar Germany is that political violence, if not substantially punished, will tend to be repeated. Another is that if paramilitary organizations get out of control, they end up shaping the political atmosphere and playing an intimidating role in elections.

    Another characteristic of authoritarian schemas is that they do not appear spontaneously. Generally, a period of social unrest precedes these movements. In America, rising economic inequality and insecurity, coupled with demographic and cultural shifts over the past four decades, are driving public discontent. Resentment boils over and festers, especially among those who see themselves as having lost their former status. Course of fear and anxiety through the public body.

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